The Gale decal and the adhesive protected the fiberglass from the soda, leaving "the shadow." of it. The soda may have pushed traces of the adhesive into the fiberglass, and then it swells up when the paint soaks in to it.
The pitting is where the soda removed the resin in between the fiberglass strands. I would go over it with a bright light , and sand down the remnants of the logo . Then with a skim coat of body filler over the entire hood, sand smooth using really good side lighting . Then, spraying with a high build primer so you can get the fine scratches out before top coat.